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Time for Hard Decisions
An Op Ed by Anabela Abreu
World Bank Country Manager for Bosnia and Herzegovina
Growth in Europe and in the rest of the world is likely to be much lower than anyone expected even a few months ago. The effects of this are going to be felt very sharply in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) and the country needs to prepare. Both the political leaders and the social partners need to resolve some key policy differences in order to avoid a looming domestic crisis. Here is what is very likely to happen if they do not.
Exports will be hit. Domestic growth will slow and government revenues will fall. Access to finance will tighten sharply. As these flows are cut off the government will have very few options for funding its expenditures. Raising tax rates in a recession is not an attractive option and anyway the social contribution rates are so high already that many of the workers and firms have fled the formal economy and pay no taxes at all. The government will be forced to try to borrow to cover its widening deficit. But local capital markets are very thin. Bosnia and Herzegovina has had a heavy reliance of on foreign sources of finance flowing through the banking system. However, funding from foreign banks is going to be very difficult to tap further. The crisis unfolding in Europe is essentially a sovereign debt crisis that is threatening those very banks that have been providing funding up until now. Italian Banks, for instance hold claims on BH amounting to 20 percent of BH GDP. They have problems of their own now and will not be seeking to increase their exposure to BH. The Austrian central bank has just ordered that its banks make no further loans to countries in Europe’s periphery beyond what they can fund out of local deposits.
Other countries in the region face similar external challenges, but they have been taking steps to protect themselves. Macedonia recently took advantage of a new credit line facility from the IMF and also arranged a credit guarantee with the World Bank. Serbia completed a Standby Agreement series with the IMF and is just starting a new one. Serbia also got a credit guarantee from the World Bank. Other countries in the region have made similar arrangements and several, including Montenegro and Serbia, have issued Eurobonds to build up financing buffers. These preparations are not just about securing financing. Making these arrangements has involved some tough political decisions and reforms. But these countries have proved able to make them.
Against this backdrop it was especially disappointing that the BH Fiscal Council
was unable, again, to agree on a macroeconomic framework for 2012 when it met on
November 22. This is critical to gaining access to funding from the EC, the IMF and
the World Bank -
The difficulty in coming to agreement is not entirely because of political differences
between the Entity and State governments. There is, of course, a tension over the
allocation of revenues and responsibilities between the three. But there is another
more fundamental, and essentially political, problem that involves the social partners.
BH has powerful groups representing the interests of particular blocks of the BH
population. This does not make BH unique. All countries have interest groups and
these are in fact part of a healthy democracy. But in BH the demands of these groups
on the public purse are not adequately reconciled through an effective political
process with the result that government is too large and budget commitments are larger
than the country can afford. The public sector wage bill is far higher than in any
other country in the region. Pension benefits to veterans and military personnel
are more generous than the country can afford. The number of individuals receiving
disability pensions is very high relative to other countries. There is a need to
restructure benefits systems to allow for more for means-
It does not have to be this way. But for the future to be better there will need to be real progress on the political front. The entity and state authorities will have to come to a sensible and enduring compromise on the allocation of revenues and responsibilities, and leaders of all sorts, including those of the social partners, need to summon the courage to communicate frankly to their various constituencies the need to carry out important reforms and to temper collective demands fit fiscal reality.